Halachic Infertility refers to a case where a woman ovulates prior to immersion in the mikva. Since studies have shown that relations must occur before ovulation in order to result in conception, this “early ovulation” results in infertility.
A woman who suspects that she ovulates before she can immerse in the mikvah should first determine her date of ovulation. There are several ways to do this:
1) She can measure her temperature upon arising every morning (the “basal body temperature”). There is generally a rise of about 0.3 degrees Centigrade (0.5 degrees Fahrenheit) just prior to ovulation. This method can be cumbersome for women who wake at irregular times, and body temperature can be affected by other factors, such as illness. Therefore, other methods are more popular today.
2) She can use an “ovulation prediction test,” which measures the surge in lutenizing hormone (LH) that precedes ovulation by 12-24 hours. These kits are readily available in pharmacies or Amazon without a prescription, and may be used in the privacy of one’s home.
(Here you can find many types of ovulation test) https://www.amazon.com/s/ref=nb_sb_noss?url=search-alias%3Daps&field-keywords=ovulation+test
3) A physician may order blood tests to determine hormone levels on particular days of her cycle.
4) Under direction of a physician, she may undergo a series of ultrasounds which follow the development of the ovarian follicle and record ovulation directly.
A woman who discovers that she is ovulating before immersion should next verify that her menses really last as long as she thinks. Any color other than bright red on a hefsek taharah or other internal examination should be brought to a rabbi to check whether it is, in fact, problematic. The rabbi should be aware that she cannot conceive due to early ovulation, as certain leniencies may apply in this situation. Many cases of halachic infertility can be solved by avoiding unnecessary delay of mikveh immersion.
What are the causes of “early ovulation” and what can be done within halacha to treat this issue?
There are two scenarios that result in early ovulation:
Normal or Average Menstrual Cycle
On average, a regular menstrual cycle occurs every 28 days and lasts from 2 to 7 days. In most cases, women ovulate 14 days prior to their upcoming menstruation, or on the 14th day of her monthly cycle.
According to halachot of niddah, women cannot immerse in the mikvah until at least 12 days (11 days according to Sephardic opinions) from the onset of menstruation.
On average, a woman will therefore immerse (depending on the duration of bleeding) anywhere from the 12th day of her cycle to the 14th day of her cycle. Most women will ovulate after immersion, an optimum time for fertility. Women who have an average 14 day cycle and bleed for a full 7 days will ovulate on the day of immersion, a situation which is considered to be borderline and may result in infertility.
Short cycle infertility is defined as a case where even a woman with the shortest duration of bleeding cannot immerse in the mikveh prior to ovulation. Women whose cycles are 25 days or less will not immerse until at least the 12th day after the onset of monthly bleeding. Since ovulation generally occurs 14 days before the onset of monthly bleeding, we can calculate that ovulation in such cycles will occur on or prior to the 11th day of the monthly cycle. Such women cannot immerse prior to ovulation, which results in infertility.
Women whose cycles are 26 days are considered to be borderline cases; some may ovulate prior to immersion while others may ovulate after immersion, depending on the duration of her bleeding period.
Long bleeding is defined as a case in which either the duration of menstrual bleeding or occurrences of irregular bleeding lead to an inability to immerse in the mikveh prior to ovulation.
Any instance where the duration of bleeding combined with the mandatory minimum 7 day waiting period after the cessation of period leads to immersion after ovulation. For instance, a woman with a 27 day cycle will ovulate on day 13 of her cycle. If her period lasts for 7 days, she will immerse no earlier than day 14.
Please note that a monthly period lasting for longer than 7 days may require medical attention. A physician should be consulted.
The above calculations are explanatory in nature and should not be relied upon to calculate the date of ovulation. There are methods to determine the exact date of ovulation which should be used to determine if religious infertility is indeed the case. If it is determined that a woman is indeed suffering from religious infertility there are methods within halacha to address the situation.
The following solutions are not general in nature. Each case must be evaluated and treated on an individual basis in consultation with a Rabbi or Puah Rabbinic Counselor.
Short Cycle Solutions: Short cycles can be caused by excess stress or dietary issues. In such cases, dietary changes (eating 3 healthy well balanced meals each day), relaxation techniques and/or moderate exercise may result in the extension of the cycle to normal levels. If these solutions are not effective, there are natural remedies as well as pharmacological remedies that may be prescribed. This should only be done in consultation with a fertility professional and/or Puah Rabbinical Counselor.
Long Bleeding Solutions: Many cases of long bleeding are the result of unnecessary stringency in the observance of the laws of niddah. The responsibility in this area is placed on the woman herself and the natural inclination when in doubt is to err on the side of caution. As such, there are women who postpone their immersion date in error and can actually halachically immerse earlier than they think. If there is any question as to the determination of a stain or spot halachically, a Rabbi should be consulted for a definitive halachic ruling.
Not every case, however, can be solved through halachic leniency. In particular, the seven blood-free days cannot begin before bleeding has stopped, as confirmed by a hefsek taharah. Therefore, a woman with early ovulation whose menses last at least five days may require medical intervention in order to conceive.
There are a number of medical treatments that can delay ovulation. One common treatment is clomiphene citrate (Clomid, Serephene, or Ikaclomin). This drug is normally used in fertility treatment to induce ovulation, but it is helpful in this case, because it has the side effect of delaying ovulation. Another approach is to use estrogen at the beginning of the cycle to delay ovulation by a few days. Other hormonal manipulation can delay ovulation as well. All these medications require a prescription, and must be used under the supervision of a physician.
If the standard medical treatments fail or are unsuitable, there are other possible ways to intervene, but these should be developed by a medical team working together with a rabbi experienced in fertility.
There are also natural remedies that may be employed to shorten the duration of a menstrual cycle. For example, in some cases, drinking the juice of one lemon each day of menstruation has been shown to be effective in shortening the duration of a period.